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没有 SSN 如何在美国建立信用记录

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要饭 @ 12-07-2016 分类: Emu笔记

没有 SSN 也会有信用记录

Bankrate, Inc. 官网 2012 年 10 月的一篇文章, “Build credit without Social Security number?” 联系三大信用局做了核实:

“Name and current address are the minimum requirement, but we strongly encourage the lender to provide the SSN, date of birth and previous address if it was within the last two years,” she [Maxine Sweet, vice president of public education at Experian] says. “That additional information can be very important in helping us match the account to the correct consumer.” TransUnion also builds credit histories on individuals without a Social Security number. Equifax didn’t respond to emails asking about their minimum identification requirements for a credit report.

Experian 和 TransUnion 都确认:没有 SSN 也能建立信用记录;通常要求姓名、现住址、出生日期、过往住址等 — 根据我的经验,在美国不管是申请信用卡、还是买保险、办理贷款,在线注册的时候通常都要求提供这些信息,可用于核实你的身份,自然也可以用于记录你的信用历史。Equifax 没有回复。

Experian 官网 2014 年 11 月的一篇问答, Accounts may be reported even without Social Security number, 也确认了这一说法。

Experian doesn’t match information to a person’s credit history using only the Social Security number. Experian matches information using all of the identification information provided by the lender, so the account will be accurately shown in your report, even if no Social Security number is provided.

因此,可以肯定地说,即使没有 SSN, 你的行为同样可能被信用局记录,切勿随意毁约、欠钱不还、以为不会影响自己将来的记录。

没有 SSN 也可以申请信用卡

不少银行提供无 SSN 申请的信用卡,比如 Bank of America; 另外Build credit without Social Security number? 一文里也说到:

Discover and Bank of America accept Social Security numbers, but they also will take a taxpayer identification number issued by the Internal Revenue Service. American Express accepts several forms of identification: Social Security, taxpayer ID, a foreign driver’s license or a foreign-issued passport. Citi doesn’t require a Social Security number, but applicants who don’t have one may be asked to show a government-issued ID at the closest Citi bank branch.

就是说,有些信用卡如果没有 SSN 的话可以用税号 (Individual Taxpayer Identification Number; ITIN)、甚至用驾照和护照也可以申请。银行和信用卡公司每年的政策不一样,我也不知道现在具体有哪几家银行、哪几种信用卡可以无 SSN 申请,但是从历史上来看,下面这些信用卡比较容易申请:

  • Citibank (对国际学生和外籍人士很友好)
  • Bank of America
  • American Express (据说网上填表的时候 SSN 一栏可填 000-000-0000)
  • Discover (很多人来美国生活的第一张信用卡)
  • 学生卡 – 专门针对没有经济来源的学生推出,额度低、门槛低

没有信用卡也可以建立信用记录

无 SSN 可以申请的信用卡,并不代表不需要信用记录。前面也说过了,没有 SSN 同样会有信用记录。正确的流程应该是:

  1. 在没有 SSN 和信用卡的情况下先初步建立信用记录
  2. 有了一定信用记录之后即使没有SSN 也可以申请信用卡
  3. 有了信用卡之后合理使用,分数会较快提高
  4. 有了足够的信用分数之后,贷款买车甚至买房,按时还款,分数会涨得更快

万事开头难。在什么都没有的情况下,如何建立信用记录?

  1. 办一张 Secured Credit Card — 押金信用卡。这种卡从金融的角度来说没有意义,因为所谓的「额度」是你自己的押金,但是它能帮助你建立信用记录。
  2. 开设银行存款帐号。很多人反映 1 万美元是一个槛 — 把能动用的学费、生活费之类的存在银行,好好管理,这些也是你的信用。
  3. 用你的名字租房,支付水、电、手机账单,及时支付、切勿拖欠;如果搬家,务必把旧地址的所有 utility 账单取消。及时付账是建立信用最基本的要求。
  4. 不要频繁搬家。固定的住所意味着「更可靠」 — 如果是有稳定的收入就更好了。很多金融活动在网上申请时需要提供过去两年的住址;如果你在同一个地址居住了两年以上,信用卡申请被批准的机会大很多。
  5. 办理商场的 store credit card — 如 Best Buy, Macy’s 的信用卡,这些卡只能在各自店里使用,并非真正意义上的信用卡。办理之后使用、购物、并及时还款。
  6. 如果你有亲人在美国并且 TA 有信用卡帐号,可以把你添加为授权用户,这是最简单、最快捷的方式。信小信刚来美国我就把她加到了我的信用卡上,虽然她几乎从来不用美国的帐号,但是她的 FICO 分数也有 700 出头……

帮助没有 SSN 的国际学生建立信用记录的储蓄卡

这个平台叫 ModernLend, 其联合创始人 Shuo Zhang 两个月前联系过我。根据其官网说明,大致的流程是:

  1. 你申请参与(无需 SSN 或信用记录)
  2. 获批后每月支付 25 美元和 8 美元的 program fee, ModernLend 会把你的支付记录报告给三大信用局中的两个(没说是哪两个)
  3. 12 个月之后 ModernLend 会退还你的钱 — 我的理解是不包括每月 8 美元的 program fee, 只是你每月的 25 美元付款。
  4. 因为有 12 个月的准时付款记录,此时你应该已经有较好的 FICO 信用分数。 ModernLend 称 6 个月左右 FICO 分数有望达到 “Fair” (600 – 660) 甚至 “Good” (660 – 780)。在我印象中 FICO 分数 740 以上就已经是 Excellent 了,不要抱太大希望。

下面是 Shuo Zhang 的邮件:

Hi Derek, I found your contact information from you blog, I read a very interesting article about your experience with credit scores in the U.S.: http://cn.derekyang.us/credit-card.

My company ModernLend is the only online lender that helps international citizens without SSN establish their FICO score and access financial products. Our mission is to provide financial inclusion for international citizens in the U.S. I founded this company because I am Chinese and my Chinese classmates and my cousins all faced financial challenges when coming to the U.S.

I found your personal story to be fascinating, and would love to hear more about it. There is also perhaps a chance for ModernLend to help the Chinese readers on your blog. If you have some time, I would love to talk via phone or Skype. Thank you, Shuo 张硕

我在他们网站上没有看到关于团队的介绍,觉得有些疑虑, Shuo 回复说:

To provide you more background on our company, ModernLend was founded at the Wharton Business School, and we are one of 10 companies (out of 1,000+ candidates) accepted into Entrepreneurs Roundtable Accelerator, a top accelerator program in NYC.

I personally worked at Goldman Sachs before starting ModernLend. Our investors have advised us to not put our personal information on our website, since most financial companies leave that out.

But to your point, it is important to at least mention who we are. We would love to tell Chinese students about our product. If you are writing any other articles regarding credit scoring, we would love to be part of it (and provide you more information related to that).

其网站底部有一些相关链接,如这条由 BBVA Compass 发布的新闻稿也提到了 ModernLend 及其联合创始人 Shuo Zhang, 并配有图片。BBVA Compass 是纽交所上市公司 BBVA 的子公司。

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